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Low potassium level

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Low potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of this condition is hypokalemia. 

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Causes
Potassium is needed for cells to function properly. You get potassium through food. The kidneys remove excess potassium in the urine to keep a proper balance of the mineral in the body.

Common causes of low potassium level  include:
Symptoms
A small drop in potassium level often does not cause symptoms. Or symptoms may be mild and include: A large drop in potassium level may slow your heartbeat. This can cause you to feel lightheaded or faint. A very low potassium level can even cause your heart to stop.

Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will order a blood test to check your potassium level.

Other blood tests may be ordered to check levels of:
Treatment
If your condition is mild, your doctor will likely prescribe oral potassium pills. If your condition is severe, you may need to get potassium through a vein ( IV).

If you need diuretics, you doctor may: Eating foods rich in potassium can help treat and prevent low level of potassium. These foods include:
Outlook (Prognosis)
Taking potassium supplements can usually correct the problem. In severe cases, without proper treatment, a severe drop in potassium level can lead to serious heart rhythm problems that can be fatal.

Possible Complications
In severe cases, patients can develop paralysis that can be life-threatening. This is more common when there is too much thyroid hormone in the blood.  This is called thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have been vomiting or have had excessive diarrhea, or if you are taking diuretics and have symptoms of hypokalemia.

Prevention
Eating a diet rich in potassium can help prevent hypokalemia. Foods high in potassium include:
Alternative Names
Potassium - low; Low blood potassium; Hypokalemia

References
Mount DB, Zandi-Nejad K. Disorders of potassium balance. In: Brenner BM, ed. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney . 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap 15.

Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 121.

Update Date: 4/14/2013
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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