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Impetigo

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Impetigo is a common skin infection.

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Causes
Impetigo is caused by streptococcus (strep) or staphylococcus (staph) bacteria. Methicillin-resistant staph aureus (MRSA) is becoming a common cause.

The skin normally has many types of bacteria on it. When there is a break in the skin, bacteria can enter the body and grow there. This causes inflammation and infection. Breaks in the skin may occur with: Impetigo may also occur on skin where there is no visible break.

It is most common in children who live in unhealthy conditions. 

In adults, it may occur following another skin problem. It may also develop after a cold or other virus.

Impetigo can spread to others. You can catch the infection if the fluid that oozes from the blisters touches an open area on your skin.

Symptoms
Symptoms of impetigo are:
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will look at your skin to determine if you have impetigo.

The health care provider may take a sample of bacteria from your skin to grow in the lab.This can help determine if MRSA is the cause. Specific antibiotics are needed to treat this type of bacteria.

Treatment
The goal is to cure the infection and relieve the symptoms.

Your doctor will prescribe an antibacterial cream. You may need to take antibiotics by mouth if the infection is severe.

Wash (do not scrub) the skin several times a day with an antibacterial soap to remove crusts and drainage.

Outlook (Prognosis)
The sores of impetigo heal slowly. Scars are rare. The cure rate is very high, but the problem often comes back in young children.

When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of impetigo.

Prevention
Prevent the spread of infection. Keep your skin clean to prevent getting the infection. Clean minor cuts and scrapes well with soap and clean water. You can use a mild antibacterial soap. 

References
Habif TP. Bacterial infections. In: Habif TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology . 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 9.

Pasternack MS, Swartz MN. Cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and subcutaneous tissue infections. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90.

Morelli JG. Cutaneous Bacterial Infections. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 657.



Update Date: 11/20/2012
Kevin Berman, MD, PhD, Atlanta Center for Dermatologic Disease, Atlanta, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
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